Photo of Andrew S. Bowman

Andrew S. Bowman

  • Assistant Professor, Veterinary Preventive Medicine
    The Ohio State University
  • bowman.214@osu.edu
  • 1920 Coffey Road
    Columbus, Ohio 43210
  • Phone: (614) 292-6923
    Fax: (614) 292-4142

Journal Articles

  • Lauterbach SE, Zentkovich MM, Nelson SW, Nolting JM, Bowman AS. "Environmental surfaces used in entry-day corralling likely contribute to the spread of influenza A virus in swine at agricultural fairs." Emerging Microbes & Infections. Vol. 5, (Feb 2017): e9. (Published). Lauterbach SE, Zentkovich MM, Nelson SW, Nolting JM, Bowman AS Environmental surfaces used in entry-day corralling likely contribute to the spread of influenza A virus in swine at agricultural fairs Emerging Microbes & Infections Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 10.1038/emi.2016.138 DOI
  • Mollenkopf DF, Stull JW, Mathys DA, Bowman AS, Feicht SM, Grooters SV, Daniels JB, Wittum TE. "Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae recovered from the environment of a swine farrow-to-finish operation in the United States." Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Vol. 61, no. 2. (Feb 2017): e01298-16. (Published). Mollenkopf DF, Stull JW, Mathys DA, Bowman AS, Feicht SM, Grooters SV, Daniels JB, Wittum TE Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae recovered from the environment of a swine farrow-to-finish operation in the United States Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 27919894 10.1128/AAC.01298-16 Links
  • Xu Y, Ramey A, Bowman AS, Deliberto TJ, Killian ML, Krauss S, Nolting JM, Torchetti M, Reeves A, Webby R, Stalknecht DE, Wan XF. "Low Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses in North American Diving Ducks Contribute to the Emergence of a Novel Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H7N8) Virus." Journal of Virology. Vol. Epub ahead of print, (Feb 2017): JVI.02208-16. (Published). Xu Y, Ramey A, Bowman AS, Deliberto TJ, Killian ML, Krauss S, Nolting JM, Torchetti M, Reeves A, Webby R, Stalknecht DE, Wan XF Low Pathogenic Influenza A Viruses in North American Diving Ducks Contribute to the Emergence of a Novel Highly Pathogenic Influenza A(H7N8) Virus Journal of Virology Journal Article Peer-Review Design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 28202755 10.1128/JVI.02208-16 Links
  • Martin B, Bowman AS, Li L, Nolting JM, Smith D, Hanson L, and Wan XF. "Detection of Antigenic Variants of Swine Subtype H3 Influenza A Viruses from Clinical Samples." Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Vol. Epub ahead of print, (Jan 2017): JCM.02049-16. (Published). Martin B, Bowman AS, Li L, Nolting JM, Smith D, Hanson L, and Wan XF Detection of Antigenic Variants of Swine Subtype H3 Influenza A Viruses from Clinical Samples Journal of Clinical Microbiology Journal Article Peer-Review Acquisition of data and manuscript preparation 28077698 10.1128/JCM.02049-16 Links
  • Urig HE, Nolting JM, Mathys DA, Mathys BA, Bowman AS. "Influenza A virus surveillance in under-represented avian species, Ohio, 2015." Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Vol. 53, no. 2. (Jan 2017): Epub ahead of print. (Published). Urig HE, Nolting JM, Mathys DA, Mathys BA, Bowman AS Influenza A virus surveillance in under-represented avian species, Ohio, 2015. Journal of Wildlife Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 10.7589/2016-05-106 DOI
  • Zentkovich MM, Nelson SW, Stull JW, Nolting JM, Bowman AS. "Inactivation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus using heated water." Veterinary and Animal Science. Vol. 1, (Dec 2016): 1-3. (Published). Zentkovich MM, Nelson SW, Stull JW, Nolting JM, Bowman AS Inactivation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus using heated water Veterinary and Animal Science Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 10.1016/j.vas.2016.09.001 DOI
  • Nelson MI, Stucker KM, Schobel SA, Trovão NS, Das SR, Dugan VG, Nelson SW, Sreevatsan S, Killian ML, Nolting JM, Wentworth DE, Bowman AS. "Introduction, evolution, and dissemination of influenza A viruses in exhibition swine, USA, 2009-2013." Journal of Virology. Vol. 90, no. 23. (Nov 2016): 10963-10971. (Published). Nelson MI, Stucker KM, Schobel SA, Trovão NS, Das SR, Dugan VG, Nelson SW, Sreevatsan S, Killian ML, Nolting JM, Wentworth DE, Bowman AS Introduction, evolution, and dissemination of influenza A viruses in exhibition swine, USA, 2009-2013. Journal of Virology Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 27681134 10.1128/JVI.01457-16 Links
  • Krauss S, Stallknecht DE, Slemons RD, Bowman AS, Poulson RL, Nolting JM, Knowles JP, Webster RG. "Let time be the arbiter." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol. 113, no. 43. (Oct 2016): E6553-E6554. (Published). Krauss S, Stallknecht DE, Slemons RD, Bowman AS, Poulson RL, Nolting JM, Knowles JP, Webster RG. Let time be the arbiter Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Other Editor-Review Conception and design of the work and manuscript preparation 27791027 10.1073/pnas.1614678113 Links
  • Schicker RS, Rossow J, Eckel S, Fisher N, Bidol S, Tatham L, Matthews-Greer J, Sohner K, Bowman AS, Avrill J, Forshey T, Blanton L, Davis CT, Schiltz J, Skorupski S, Berman L, Jang Y, Bresee JS, Lindstrom S, Trock SC, Wentworth D, Fry AM, de Fijter S, Signs K, DiOrio M, Olsen SJ, Biggerstaff M. "Outbreak of Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus Infections Among Persons Attending Agricultural Fairs Housing Infected Swine — Michigan and Ohio, July–August 2016." Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vol. 65, no. 42. (Oct 2016): 1157-1160. (Published). Schicker RS, Rossow J, Eckel S, Fisher N, Bidol S, Tatham L, Matthews-Greer J, Sohner K, Bowman AS, Avrill J, Forshey T, Blanton L, Davis CT, Schiltz J, Skorupski S, Berman L, Jang Y, Bresee JS, Lindstrom S, Trock SC, Wentworth D, Fry AM, de Fijter S, Signs K, DiOrio M, Olsen SJ, Biggerstaff M Outbreak of Influenza A(H3N2) Variant Virus Infections Among Persons Attending Agricultural Fairs Housing Infected Swine — Michigan and Ohio, July–August 2016 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Journal Article Editor-Review Acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 27787493 10.15585/mmwr.mm6542a1 Links
  • Bliss N, Nelson SW, Nolting JM, Bowman AS. "Prevalence of influenza A virus in exhibition swine during arrival at agricultural fairs." Zoonoses and Public Health. Vol. 63, no. 6. (Sep 2016): 477-485. (Published). Bliss N, Nelson SW, Nolting JM, Bowman AS Prevalence of influenza A virus in exhibition swine during arrival at agricultural fairs Zoonoses and Public Health Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 26750204 10.1111/zph.12252 The exhibition swine at agricultural fairs provides a critical human-swine interface that allows for the bidirectional transmission of influenza A virus (IAV). Previous IAV surveillance at the end of fairs has resulted in frequent detection of IAV-infected swine; little is known, however, about the frequency with which swine arrive at fairs already infected with IAV. We investigated the IAV prevalence among exhibition swine entering fairs to better understand the epidemiology of IAV in this unique human-swine interface. In 2014, snout wipes were collected from 3547 swine during the first day of nine agricultural exhibitions in Indiana and Ohio. Samples were screened for IAV using rRT-PCR and positive samples were inoculated into cultured cells for virus isolation. The overall IAV prevalence detected among swine arriving at exhibitions was 5.3% (188/3547) via rRT-PCR and 1.5% (53/3547) via virus isolation, with IAV being detected and recovered from swine at 5 of the 9 exhibitions. Within the fairs with IAV-positive swine, the individual exhibition IAV prevalence ranged from 0.2% (1/523) to 34.4% (144/419) using rRT-PCR and 0.2% (1/523) to 10.3% (43/419) with virus isolation. Single IAV subtypes were detected at three of the fairs but subtype diversity was detected among the pigs at two fairs as both H1N1 and H3N2 were recovered from incoming swine. At two of the exhibitions, a temporal relationship was observed between the order of the individual swine in sampling and the associated IAV rRT-PCR results, indicating the fomite transmission of IAV through common contact surfaces may occur. With the knowledge that a small proportion of swine arrive at fairs shedding IAV, resources should be directed towards preventive strategies focused on limiting transmission during fairs to protect swine and humans during exhibitions. Swine|exhibits|influenza A virus|livestock|prevalence|virus shedding Links
  • Krauss S, Stallknecht DE, Slemons RD, Bowman AS, Poulson RL, Nolting JM, Knowles JP, Webster RG. "The Enigma of the apparent disappearance of Eurasian highly pathogenic H5 clade influenza A viruses in North American waterfowl." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol. 113, no. 32. (Aug 2016): 9033-9038. (Published). Krauss S, Stallknecht DE, Slemons RD, Bowman AS, Poulson RL, Nolting JM, Knowles JP, Webster RG. The Enigma of the apparent disappearance of Eurasian highly pathogenic H5 clade influenza A viruses in North American waterfowl. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Journal Article Peer-Review Design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 27457948 10.1073/pnas.1608853113 One of the major unresolved questions in influenza A virus (IAV) ecology is exemplified by the apparent disappearance of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1, H5N2, and H5N8 (H5Nx) viruses containing the Eurasian hemagglutinin 2.3.4.4 clade from wild bird populations in North America. The introduction of Eurasian lineage HP H5 clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 IAV and subsequent reassortment with low-pathogenic H?N2 and H?N1 North American wild bird-origin IAVs in late 2014 resulted in widespread HP H5Nx IAV infections and outbreaks in poultry and wild birds across two-thirds of North America starting in November 2014 and continuing through June 2015. Although the stamping out strategies adopted by the poultry industry and animal health authorities in Canada and the United States-which included culling, quarantining, increased biosecurity, and abstention from vaccine use-were successful in eradicating the HP H5Nx viruses from poultry, these activities do not explain the apparent disappearance of these viruses from migratory waterfowl. Here we examine current and historical aquatic bird IAV surveillance and outbreaks of HP H5Nx in poultry in the United States and Canada, providing additional evidence of unresolved mechanisms that restrict the emergence and perpetuation of HP avian influenza viruses in these natural reservoirs. highly pathogenic avian influenza|migratory waterfowl|restricted perpetuation|surveillance|wild bird Links
  • Nolting JM, Fries AC, Gates RJ, Bowman AS, Slemons RD. "Influenza A Viruses from Overwintering and Spring-Migrating Waterfowl in the Lake Erie Basin, United States." Avian Diseases. Vol. 60, no. 1. (May 2016): 241-244. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Nolting JM, Fries AC, Gates RJ, Bowman AS, Slemons RD Influenza A Viruses from Overwintering and Spring-Migrating Waterfowl in the Lake Erie Basin, United States Avian Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 27309062 10.1637/11138-050815-ResNoteR 0005-2086 Influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance in migratory waterfowl in the United States has primarily occurred during late summer and the autumn southern migration. Data concerning the presence and ecology of IAVs in waterfowl during winter and spring seasons in the U.S. northern latitudes have been limited, mainly due to limited access to waterfowl for sampling. The southwestern Lake Erie Basin is an important stopover site for waterfowl during migration periods, and over the past 28 years, 8.72% of waterfowl sampled in this geographic location have been positive for IAV recovery during summer and autumn (June-December). To gain a better understanding of influenza A viral dynamics in waterfowl populations during winter and spring migration (February through April), cloacal swabs were collected from overwintering and spring-migrating waterfowl in Ohio and Michigan in 2006, 2007, 2013, and 2014. A total of 740 cloacal swabs were collected and tested using virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs, resulting in the recovery of 33 (4.5%) IAV isolates. The influenza A isolates were recovered from eight waterfowl species in the order Anseriformes. Antigenically, the IAV isolates represent 15 distinct hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) combinations, with seven (21%) of the isolates reported as mixed infections based on antigenic HA subtyping, NA subtyping, or both. This effort demonstrates the presence of antigenically diverse IAV in waterfowl during overwintering and spring migration at northern latitudes in the United States, thereby contributing to the understanding of the maintenance of diversity among waterfowl-origin IAVs. PATTERNS|PREVALENCE|SURVEILLANCE|SPREAD|HOSTS|DUCKS|TRANSMISSION|avian influenza virus|influenza A virus|wild birds|NORTHERN MIGRATION Veterinary Sciences Links
  • Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Workman JD, Cooper M, Fisher AE, Marsh B, Forshey T. "The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature." Zoonoses and public health. Vol. 63, no. 1. (Feb 2016): 34-39. (Published). Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Workman JD, Cooper M, Fisher AE, Marsh B, Forshey T The Inability to Screen Exhibition Swine for Influenza A Virus Using Body Temperature. Zoonoses and public health Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 25884907 10.1111/zph.12201 1863-1959 Agricultural fairs create an unconventional animal-human interface that has been associated with swine-to-human transmission of influenza A virus (IAV) in recent years. Early detection of IAV-infected pigs at agricultural fairs would allow veterinarians to better protect swine and human health during these swine exhibitions. This study assessed the use of swine body temperature measurement, recorded by infrared and rectal thermometers, as a practical method to detect IAV-infected swine at agricultural fairs. In our first objective, infrared thermometers were used to record the body surface temperature of 1,092 pigs at the time of IAV nasal swab collection at the end of the exhibition period of 55 agricultural fairs. IAV was recovered from 212 (19.4%) pigs, and the difference in mean infrared body temperature measurement of IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs was 0.83°C. In a second objective, snout wipes were collected from 1,948 pigs immediately prior to the unloading of the animals at a single large swine exhibition. Concurrent to the snout wipe collection, owners took the rectal temperatures of his/her pigs. In this case, 47 (2.4%) pigs tested positive for IAV before they entered the swine barn. The mean rectal temperatures differed by only 0.19°C between IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs. The low prevalence of IAV among the pigs upon entry to the fair in the second objective provides evidence that limiting intraspecies spread of IAV during the fairs will likely have significant impacts on the zoonotic transmission. However, in both objectives, the high degree of similarity in the body temperature measurements between the IAV-positive and IAV-negative pigs made it impossible to set a diagnostically meaningful cut point to differentiate IAV status of the individual animals. Unfortunately, body temperature measurement cannot be used to accurately screen exhibition swine for IAV. Influenza A virus|detection|exhibits|livestock|public health|swine Links
  • Nelson MI, Wentworth DE, Das SR, Sreevatsan S, Killian ML, Nolting JM, Slemons RD, Bowman AS. "Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Viruses in US Exhibition Swine." Journal of Infectious Diseases. Vol. 213, no. 2. (Jan 2016): 173-182. (Published). Nelson MI, Wentworth DE, Das SR, Sreevatsan S, Killian ML, Nolting JM, Slemons RD, Bowman AS Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Viruses in US Exhibition Swine. Journal of Infectious Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Conception of the work, acquisition of data, and manuscript preparation. 26243317 10.1093/infdis/jiv399 0022-1899 The role of exhibition swine in influenza A virus transmission was recently demonstrated by >300 infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses among individuals who attended agricultural fairs. Through active influenza A virus surveillance in US exhibition swine and whole-genome sequencing of 380 isolates, we demonstrate that exhibition swine are actively involved in the evolution of influenza A viruses, including zoonotic strains. First, frequent introduction of influenza A viruses from commercial swine populations provides new genetic diversity in exhibition pigs each year locally. Second, genomic reassortment between viruses cocirculating in exhibition swine increases viral diversity. Third, viral migration between exhibition swine in neighboring states demonstrates that movements of exhibition pigs contributes to the spread of genetic diversity. The unexpected frequency of viral exchange between commercial and exhibition swine raises questions about the understudied interface between these populations. Overall, the complexity of viral evolution in exhibition swine indicates that novel viruses are likely to continually reemerge, presenting threats to humans. United States|evolution|exhibition animals|gene flow|genomics|human-animal interface|influenza A virus|swine Links
  • Nolting JM, Szablewski CM, Edwards JL, Nelson SW, Bowman AS. "Nasal Wipes for Influenza A Virus Detection and Isolation from Swine." Journal of Visualized Experiments. Vol. 1, no. 106. (Dec 2015): e53313. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Nolting JM, Szablewski CM, Edwards JL, Nelson SW, Bowman AS Nasal Wipes for Influenza A Virus Detection and Isolation from Swine Journal of Visualized Experiments Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 26709840 10.3791/53313 1940-087X Surveillance for influenza A viruses in swine is critical to human and animal health because influenza A virus rapidly evolves in swine populations and new strains are continually emerging. Swine are able to be infected by diverse lineages of influenza A virus making them important hosts for the emergence and maintenance of novel influenza A virus strains. Sampling pigs in diverse settings such as commercial swine farms, agricultural fairs, and live animal markets is important to provide a comprehensive view of currently circulating IAV strains. The current gold-standard ante-mortem sampling technique (i.e. collection of nasal swabs) is labor intensive because it requires physical restraint of the pigs. Nasal wipes involve rubbing a piece of fabric across the snout of the pig with minimal to no restraint of the animal. The nasal wipe procedure is simple to perform and does not require personnel with professional veterinary or animal handling training. While slightly less sensitive than nasal swabs, virus detection and isolation rates are adequate to make nasal wipes a viable alternative for sampling individual pigs when low stress sampling methods are required. The proceeding protocol outlines the steps needed to collect a viable nasal wipe from an individual pig. SURVEILLANCE|RESPIRATORY-SYNDROME-VIRUS|TRANSMISSION|UNITED-STATES|AMERICAN PIGS|H3N2|ORAL-FLUID SAMPLES|A(H3N2) VIRUS|COUNTY FAIR|AGRICULTURAL FAIR|surveillance|influenza A virus|immunology|porcine|diagnostic techniques and procedures|swine|pathogen detection|snout|Issue 106 Multidisciplinary Sciences Links
  • Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Bliss N, Stull JW, Wang Q, Premanandan C. "Effects of disinfection on the molecular detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus." Veterinary Microbiology. Vol. 179, no. 3-4. (Sep 2015): 213-218. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Bliss N, Stull JW, Wang Q, Premanandan C Effects of disinfection on the molecular detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus Veterinary Microbiology Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 26072369 10.1016/j.vetmic.2015.05.027 0378-1135 Routine detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is currently limited to RT-PCR but this test cannot distinguish between viable and inactivated virus. We evaluated the capability of disinfectants to both inactivate PEDV and sufficiently damage viral RNA beyond RT-PCR detection. Five classes of disinfectants (phenol, quaternary ammonium compound, sodium hypochlorite, oxidizing agent, and quaternary ammonium/glutaraldehyde combination) were evaluated in vitro at varying concentrations, both in the presence and absence of swine feces, and at three different temperatures. No infectious PEDV was recovered after treatment with evaluated disinfectants. Additionally, all tested disinfectants except for 0.17% sodium hypochlorite dramatically reduced qRT-PCR values. However, no disinfectants eliminated RT-PCR detection of PEDV across all replicates: although, 0.52%, 1.03% and 2.06% solutions of sodium hypochlorite and 0.5% oxidizing agent did intermittently produce RT-PCR negatives. To simulate field conditions in a second aim, PEDV was applied to pitted aluminum coupons, which were then treated with either 2.06% sodium hypochlorite or 0.5% oxidizing agent. Post-treatment surface swabs of the coupons tested RT-PCR positive but were not infectious to cultured cells or naive pigs. Ultimately, viable PEDV was not detected following application of each of the tested disinfectants, however in most cases RT-PCR detection of viral RNA remained. RT-PCR detection of PEDV is likely even after disinfection with many commercially available disinfectants. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. INACTIVATION|INFECTIVITY|EFFICACY|POLYMERASE-CHAIN-REACTION|SODIUM-HYPOCHLORITE|RESPIRATORY SYNDROME VIRUS|CELL-CULTURE|RT-PCR|TRANSPORT VEHICLES|reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction|sodium hypochlorite|infection control|bleach|biosecurity|swine|porcine epidemic diarrhea virus|virus inactivation Microbiology|Veterinary Sciences Links
  • Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Massengill R, Baker J, Workman JD, Slemons RD. "Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Waterfowl in Missouri, USA, 2005-2013." Avian Diseases. Vol. 59, no. 2. (Jun 2015): 303-308. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Massengill R, Baker J, Workman JD, Slemons RD Influenza A Virus Surveillance in Waterfowl in Missouri, USA, 2005-2013 Avian Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 10.1637/11002-121014-Reg 0005-2086 Missouri, United States, is located within the Mississippi Migratory Bird Flyway where wild waterfowl stop to feed and rest during migration and, weather permitting, to overwinter. Historically, Missouri has experienced sporadic influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks in poultry and commercial swine. The introduction of IAVs from wild, migratory waterfowl is one possible source for the IAV, IAV genomic segments, or both involved in these outbreaks in key agricultural species. During 2005 through 2013, 3984 cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-harvested waterfowl in Missouri as part of an active IAV surveillance effort. Twenty-four avian species were represented in the sample population and 108 (2.7%) of the samples tested positive for IAV recovery. These IAV isolates represented 12 HA and nine NA subtypes and at least 27 distinct HA-NA combinations. An H14 IAV isolate recovered in Missouri during the sample period provided evidence for further establishment of the H14 subtype in North American wild waterfowl and gave proof that the previously rare subtype is more genetically diverse than previously detected. The present surveillance effort also produced IAV isolates that were genomically linked to the highly pathogenic H7N3 IAV strain that emerged in 2012 and caused severe disease in Mexico's domestic poultry. The presence of antigenically diverse IAV's circulating in wild waterfowl in the vicinity of commercial poultry and swine, along with the association of several wild-bird-lineage IAV genomic segments in viruses infecting poultry in North America, justifies continued attention to biosecurity efforts in food animal production systems and ongoing active IAV surveillance in wild birds. PATTERNS|SUBTYPES|MINNESOTA|TURKEYS|UNITED-STATES|AVIAN INFLUENZA|EPIZOOTIOLOGY|MALLARDS|PARAMYXOVIRUSES|SENTINEL DUCKS|surveillance|Missouri|influenza A virus|wild-waterfowl Veterinary Sciences Links
  • Fries AC, Nolting JM, Bowman AS, Lin X, Halpin RA, Wester E, Fedorova N, Stockwell TB, Das SR, Dugan VG, Wentworth DE, Gibbs HL, Slemons RD. "Spread and persistence of influenza a viruses in waterfowl hosts in the north american Mississippi migratory flyway." Journal of Virology. Vol. 89, no. 10. (May 2015): 5371-5381. (Published). Fries AC, Nolting JM, Bowman AS, Lin X, Halpin RA, Wester E, Fedorova N, Stockwell TB, Das SR, Dugan VG, Wentworth DE, Gibbs HL, Slemons RD Spread and persistence of influenza a viruses in waterfowl hosts in the north american Mississippi migratory flyway. Journal of Virology Journal Article Peer-Review Interpretation of data and manuscript preparation. 25741003 10.1128/JVI.03249-14 0022-538X While geographic distance often restricts the spread of pathogens via hosts, this barrier may be compromised when host species are mobile. Migratory waterfowl in the order Anseriformes are important reservoir hosts for diverse populations of avian-origin influenza A viruses (AIVs) and are assumed to spread AIVs during their annual continental-scale migrations. However, support for this hypothesis is limited, and it is rarely tested using data from comprehensive surveillance efforts incorporating both the temporal and spatial aspects of host migratory patterns. We conducted intensive AIV surveillance of waterfowl using the North American Mississippi Migratory Flyway (MMF) over three autumn migratory seasons. Viral isolates (n = 297) from multiple host species were sequenced and analyzed for patterns of gene dispersal between northern staging and southern wintering locations. Using a phylogenetic and nucleotide identity framework, we observed a larger amount of gene dispersal within this flyway rather than between the other three longitudinally identified North American flyways. Across seasons, we observed patterns of regional persistence of diversity for each genomic segment, along with limited survival of dispersed AIV gene lineages. Reassortment increased with both time and distance, resulting in transient AIV constellations. This study shows that within the MMF, AIV gene flow favors spread along the migratory corridor within a season, and also that intensive surveillance during bird migration is important for identifying virus dispersal on time scales relevant to pandemic responsiveness. In addition, this study indicates that comprehensive monitoring programs to capture AIV diversity are critical for providing insight into AIV evolution and ecology in a major natural reservoir. IMPORTANCE Migratory birds are a reservoir for antigenic and genetic diversity of influenza A viruses (AIVs) and are implicated in the spread of virus diversity that has contributed to previous pandemic events. Evidence for dispersal of avian-origin AIVs by migratory birds is rarely examined on temporal scales relevant to pandemic or panzootic threats. Therefore, characterizing AIV movement by hosts within a migratory season is important for implementing effective surveillance strategies. We conducted surveillance following birds along a major North American migratory route and observed that within a migratory season, AIVs rapidly reassorted and gene lineages were dispersed primarily within the migratory corridor. Patterns of regional persistence were observed across seasons for each gene segment. We show that dispersal of AIV gene lineages by migratory birds occurs quickly along migratory routes and that surveillance for AIVs threatening human and animal health should focus attention on these routes. RATES|ALASKA|GENE FLOW|H5N1|BIRDS|UNITED-STATES|MOLECULAR EVOLUTION|AVIAN INFLUENZA|INTERSPECIES TRANSMISSION|WILD DUCKS Virology Links
  • Bowman AS, Krogwold RA, Price T, Davis M, Moeller SJ. "Investigating the introduction of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus into an Ohio swine operation." BMC Veterinary Research. Vol. 11, (Feb 2015): 38. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Bowman AS, Krogwold RA, Price T, Davis M, Moeller SJ Investigating the introduction of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus into an Ohio swine operation BMC Veterinary Research Journal Article Peer-Review Design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 25779795 10.1186/s12917-015-0348-2 1746-6148 Background: Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly transmissible coronavirus that causes a severe enteric disease that is particularly deadly for neonatal piglets. Since its introduction to the United States in 2013, PEDV has spread quickly across the country and has caused significant financial losses to pork producers. With no fully licensed vaccines currently available in the United States, prevention and control of PEDV disease is heavily reliant on biosecurity measures. Despite proven, effective biosecurity practices, multiple sites and production stages, within and across designated production flows in an Ohio swine operation broke with confirmed PEDV in January 2014, leading the producer and attending veterinarian to investigate the route of introduction. Case presentation: On January 12, 2014, several sows within a production flow were noted with signs of enteric illness. Within a few days, illness had spread to most of the sows in the facility and was confirmed by RT-PCR to be PEDV. Within a short time period, confirmed disease was present on multiple sites within and across breeding and post weaning production flows of the operation and mortality approached 100% in neonatal piglets. After an epidemiologic investigation, an outsourced, pelleted piglet diet was identified for assessment, and a bioassay, where naive piglets were fed the suspected feed pellets, was initiated to test the pellets for infectious PEDV. Conclusions: The epidemiological investigation provided strong evidence for contaminated feed as the source of the outbreak. In addition, feed pellets collected from unopened bags at the affected sites tested positive for PEDV using RT-PCR. However, the bioassay study was not able to show infectivity when feeding the suspected feed pellets to a small number of naive piglets. The results highlight the critical need for surveillance of feed and feed components to further define transmission avenues in an effort to limit the spread of PEDV throughout the U.S. swine industry. INFECTION|UNITED-STATES|FEED|PEDV|feed|swine Veterinary Sciences Links
  • Bowman AS, Nelson SW, Page SL, Nolting JM, Killian ML, Sreevatsan S, Slemons RD. "Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012." Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 20, no. 9. (Sep 2014): 1472-1480. (Published).Citation Count: 1. Bowman AS, Nelson SW, Page SL, Nolting JM, Killian ML, Sreevatsan S, Slemons RD Swine-to-Human Transmission of Influenza A(H3N2) Virus at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2012. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 25148572 10.3201/eid2009.131082 1080-6040 Agricultural fairs provide an opportunity for bidirectional transmission of influenza A viruses. We sought to determine influenza A virus activity among swine at fairs in the United States. As part of an ongoing active influenza A virus surveillance project, nasal swab samples were collected from exhibition swine at 40 selected Ohio agricultural fairs during 2012. Influenza A(H3N2) virus was isolated from swine at 10 of the fairs. According to a concurrent public health investigation, 7 of the 10 fairs were epidemiologically linked to confirmed human infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant virus. Comparison of genome sequences of the subtype H3N2 isolates recovered from humans and swine from each fair revealed nucleotide identities of >99.7%, confirming zoonotic transmission between swine and humans. All influenza A(H3N2) viruses isolated in this study, regardless of host species or fair, were >99.5% identical, indicating that 1 virus strain was widely circulating among exhibition swine in Ohio during 2012. HUMAN INFECTIONS|A VIRUSES|H3N2 VIRUS|PIGS|MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD|ORIGIN|UNITED-STATES|ANIMAL INFLUENZA|VARIANT VIRUS|COUNTY FAIR Immunology|Infectious Diseases Links
  • Edwards JL, Nelson SW,Workman JD, Slemons RD, Szablewski CM, Nolting JM, Bowman AS. "Utility of snout wipe samples for influenza A virus surveillance in exhibition swine populations." Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Vol. 8, no. 5. (Sep 2014): 574-579. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Edwards JL, Nelson SW,Workman JD, Slemons RD, Szablewski CM, Nolting JM, Bowman AS Utility of snout wipe samples for influenza A virus surveillance in exhibition swine populations Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 25043408 10.1111/irv.12270 1750-2640 BackgroundSporadic influenza A virus (IAV) outbreaks in humans and swine have resulted from commingling of large numbers of people and pigs at agricultural fairs in the United States. Current antemortem IAV surveillance strategies in swine require collecting nasal swabs, which entails restraining pigs with snares. Restraint is labor-intensive for samplers, stressful for pigs, and displeasing to onlookers because pigs often resist and vocalize. ObjectiveTo evaluate the utility of snout wipes in exhibition swine as a method to make IAV surveillance efforts less intrusive, less labor-intensive, and more widely accepted among pig owners and exhibition officials. MethodsThree materials (rayon/polyester gauze, cotton gauze, and Swiffer((R)) Sweeper dry cloths) were inoculated with IAV, and viral recoveries from these materials were quantified using qRT-PCR and TCID50 assays. In a field trial, paired cotton gauze snout wipes and gold standard polyester-tipped nasal swabs were collected from 553 pigs representing 29 agricultural fairs and the qualitative results of rRT-PCR and viral isolation were compared. Results and ConclusionsViral recoveries from potential snout wipe materials ranged from 026 to 159 log(10) TCID50/ml less than that of the positive control in which no substrate was included; rayon/polyester gauze performed significantly worse than the other materials. In the field, snout wipes and nasal swabs had high levels of agreement for both rRT-PCR detection and virus isolation. Although further investigation and refinement of the sampling method is needed, results indicate that snout wipes will facilitate convenient and undisruptive IAV surveillance in pigs at agricultural fairs. OUTBREAK|INFECTIONS|PIGS|RESPIRATORY-SYNDROME-VIRUS|TRANSMISSION|UNITED-STATES|ORAL-FLUID SAMPLES|COUNTY FAIR|AGRICULTURAL FAIR|SWAB MATERIALS|surveillance|influenza A virus|zoonotic disease|diagnostic techniques and procedures|swine Infectious Diseases|Virology Links
  • Fries AC, Nolting JM, Bowman AS, Killian ML, Wentworth DE, Slemons,RD. "Genomic analyses detect Eurasian-lineage H10 and additional H14 influenza A viruses recovered from waterfowl in the Central United States." Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. Vol. 8, no. 4. (Jul 2014): 493-498. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Fries AC, Nolting JM, Bowman AS, Killian ML, Wentworth DE, Slemons,RD Genomic analyses detect Eurasian-lineage H10 and additional H14 influenza A viruses recovered from waterfowl in the Central United States Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 24698181 10.1111/irv.12250 1750-2640 The accurate and timely characterization of influenza A viruses (IAV) from natural reservoirs is essential for responses to animal and public health threats. Differences between antigenic and genetic subtyping results for 161 IAV isolates recovered from migratory birds in the central United States during 2010-2011 delayed the recognition of four isolates of interest. Genomic sequencing identified the first reported Eurasian-origin H10 subtype in North America and three additional H14 isolates showing divergence from previously reported H14 isolates. Genomic analyses revealed additional diversity among IAV isolates not detected by antigenic subtyping and provided further insight into interhemispheric spread of avian-origin IAVs. EVOLUTION|AVIAN INFLUENZA|surveillance|influenza A virus|migratory birds|H10 subtype|H14 subtype Infectious Diseases|Virology Links
  • Feng Z, Baroch JA, Long LP, Xu Y, Cunningham FL, Pedersen K, Lutman MW, Schmit BS, Bowman AS, DeLiberto TJ, Wan XF. "Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011-2012." Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 20, no. 5. (May 2014): 843-846. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Feng Z, Baroch JA, Long LP, Xu Y, Cunningham FL, Pedersen K, Lutman MW, Schmit BS, Bowman AS, DeLiberto TJ, Wan XF. Influenza A Subtype H3 Viruses in Feral Swine, United States, 2011-2012 Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Acquisition of data and manuscript preparation. 24751326 10.3201/eid2005.131578 1080-6040 To determine whether, and to what extent, influenza A subtype H3 viruses were present in feral swine in the United States, we conducted serologic and virologic surveillance during October 2011-September 2012. These animals were periodically exposed to and infected with A(H3N2) viruses, suggesting they may threaten human and animal health. ANTIGENIC CHARACTERIZATION|AMERICAN PIGS Immunology|Infectious Diseases Links
  • Bowman AS, Workman JD, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Slemons RD. "Exploration of risk factors contributing to the presence of influenza A virus in swine at agricultural fairs." Emerging Microbes & Infections. Vol. 3, (Jan 2014): e5. (Published).Citation Count: 1. Bowman AS, Workman JD, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Slemons RD Exploration of risk factors contributing to the presence of influenza A virus in swine at agricultural fairs Emerging Microbes & Infections Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 26038494 10.1038/emi.2014.5 2222-1751 Influenza A virus infections occurring in exhibition swine populations at agricultural fairs during 2012 served as a source of H3N2 variant influenza A viruses transmitted to humans resulting in more than 300 documented cases. Prior to the outbreak, this investigation was initiated to identify fair-level risk factors contributing to influenza A virus infections in pigs at agricultural fairs. As part of an ongoing active surveillance program, nasal swabs and associated fair-level metadata were collected from pigs at 40 junior fair market swine shows held in Ohio during the 2012 fair season. Analyses of the data show that the adjusted odds of having influenza A virus-infected pigs at a fair were 1.27 (95% confidential interval (CI): 1.04-1.66) higher for every 20 pig increase in the size of the swine show. Additionally, four of the five fairs that hosted breeding swine shows in addition to their junior fair market swine shows had pigs test positive for influenza A virus. While the current study was limited to 40 fairs within one state, the findings provided insight for veterinary and public health officials developing mitigation strategies to decrease the intra- and inter-species transmission of influenza A virus at fairs. HUMAN INFECTIONS|VACCINE|EFFICACY|HUMANS|PIGS|TRANSMISSION|UNITED-STATES|H1N1|VARIANT VIRUS|2011-2012 H3N2V|influenza|zoonotic disease|swine|H3N2v Immunology|Microbiology Links
  • Tong HH, Lambert G, Li YX, Thurman JM, Stahl GL, Douthitt K, Clancy C, He Y, Bowman AS. "Deletion of the Complement C5a Receptor Alleviates the Severity of Acute Pneumococcal Otitis Media following Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice." PLOS ONE. Vol. 9, no. 4. (Jan 2014): e95160. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Tong HH, Lambert G, Li YX, Thurman JM, Stahl GL, Douthitt K, Clancy C, He Y, Bowman AS Deletion of the Complement C5a Receptor Alleviates the Severity of Acute Pneumococcal Otitis Media following Influenza A Virus Infection in Mice. PLOS ONE Journal Article Peer-Review Acquisition of the data 24740152 10.1371/journal.pone.0095160 1932-6203 There is considerable evidence that influenza A virus (IAV) promotes adherence, colonization, and superinfection by S. pneumoniae (Spn) and contributes to the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM). The complement system is a critical innate immune defense against both pathogens. To assess the role of the complement system in the host defense and the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection, we employed a well-established transtympanically-induced mouse model of acute pneumococcal OM. We found that antecedent IAV infection enhanced the severity of acute pneumococcal OM. Mice deficient in complement C1qa (C1qa(-/-)) or factor B (Bf(-/-)) exhibited delayed viral and bacterial clearance from the middle ear and developed significant mucosal damage in the eustachian tube and middle ear. This indicates that both the classical and alternative complement pathways are critical for the oto-immune defense against acute pneumococcal OM following influenza infection. We also found that Spn increased complement activation following IAV infection. This was characterized by sustained increased levels of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in serum and middle ear lavage samples. In contrast, mice deficient in the complement C5a receptor (C5aR) demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance and reduced severity of OM. Our data support the concept that C5a-C5aR interactions play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection. It is possible that targeting the C5a-C5aR axis might prove useful in attenuating acute pneumococcal OM in patients with influenza infection. STREPTOCOCCUS-PNEUMONIAE|MIDDLE-EAR|EUSTACHIAN-TUBE|UPPER RESPIRATORY-TRACT|CYTOKINE GENES|NASOPHARYNGEAL COLONIZATION|PHENOTYPE VARIANTS|FACTOR B|VIRAL-BACTERIAL INTERACTIONS|OPACITY PHENOTYPE Multidisciplinary Sciences Links
  • Ye J, Xu Y, Harris J, Sun H, Bowman AS, Cunningham F, Cardona C, Yoon KJ, Slemons RD, Wan XF. "Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses." Virology. Vol. 446, no. 1-2. (Nov 2013): 225-229. (Published).Citation Count: 2. Ye J, Xu Y, Harris J, Sun H, Bowman AS, Cunningham F, Cardona C, Yoon KJ, Slemons RD, Wan XF Mutation from arginine to lysine at the position 189 of hemagglutinin contributes to the antigenic drift in H3N2 swine influenza viruses. Virology Journal Article Peer-Review Acquisition of data, interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 24074585 10.1016/j.virol.2013.08.004 0042-6822 Two distinct antigenic clusters were previously identified among the H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) and were designated H3N2SIV-alpha and H3N2SIV-beta (Feng et al., 2013. Journal of Virology 87 (13), 7655-7667). A consistent mutation was observed at the position 189 of hemagglutinin (R189K) between H3N2SIV-alpha and H3N2SIV-beta fair isolates. To evaluate the contribution of R189K mutation to the antigenic drift from H3N2SIV-alpha to H3N2SIV-beta, four reassortant viruses with 189R or 189K were generated. The antigenic cartography demonstrated that the R189K mutation in the hemagglutinin of H3N2 IAV contributed to the antigenic drift, separating these viruses into H3N2SIV-alpha to H3N2SIV-beta. This R189K mutation was also found to contribute to the cross-reaction with several ferret sera raised against historical human IAVs with hemagglutinin carrying 189K. This study suggests that the R189K mutation plays a vital role in the antigenicity of swine and human H3N2 IAVs and identification of this antigenic determinant will help us rapidly identify antigenic variants in influenza surveillance. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. A VIRUSES|TRANSMISSION|UNITED-STATES|DOGS|AMERICAN PIGS|EQUINE INFLUENZA|GENETIC EVOLUTION|CARTOGRAPHY|antigenic variant|influenza A virus|H3N2|serological assay|antigenic cartography|antigenic drift|H3N2v|R189K Virology Links
  • Feng Z,Gomez J, Bowman AS, Ye J, Long LP, Nelson S, Yang J, Martin B , Jia K, Nolting JM, Cunningham F, Cardona C, Zhang J, Yoon KJ, Slemons RD, Wan XF. "Antigenic characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses from Ohio agricultural fairs." Journal of Virology. Vol. 87, no. 13. (Jul 2013): 7655-7667. (Published).Citation Count: 5. Feng Z,Gomez J, Bowman AS, Ye J, Long LP, Nelson S, Yang J, Martin B , Jia K, Nolting JM, Cunningham F, Cardona C, Zhang J, Yoon KJ, Slemons RD, Wan XF Antigenic characterization of H3N2 influenza A viruses from Ohio agricultural fairs Journal of Virology Journal Article Peer-Review Design of the work, interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 23637412 10.1128/JVI.00804-13 0022-538X The demonstrated link between the emergence of H3N2 variant (H3N2v) influenza A viruses (IAVs) and swine exposure at agricultural fairs has raised concerns about the human health risk posed by IAV-infected swine. Understanding the antigenic profiles of IAVs circulating in pigs at agricultural fairs is critical to developing effective prevention and control strategies. Here, 68 H3N2 IAV isolates recovered from pigs at Ohio fairs (2009 to 2011) were antigenically characterized. These isolates were compared with other H3 IAVs recovered from commercial swine, wild birds, and canines, along with human seasonal and variant H3N2 IAVs. Antigenic cartography demonstrated that H3N2 IAV isolates from Ohio fairs could be divided into two antigenic groups: (i) the 2009 fair isolates and (ii) the 2010 and 2011 fair isolates. These same two antigenic clusters have also been observed in commercial swine populations in recent years. Human H3N2v isolates from 2010 and 2011 are antigenically clustered with swine-origin IAVs from the same time period. The isolates recovered from pigs at fairs did not cross-react with ferret antisera produced against the human seasonal H3N2 IAVs circulating during the past decade, raising the question of the degree of immunity that the human population has to swine-origin H3N2 IAVs. Our results demonstrate that H3N2 IAVs infecting pigs at fairs and H3N2v isolates were antigenically similar to the IAVs circulating in commercial swine, demonstrating that exhibition swine can function as a bridge between commercial swine and the human population. HIGH-THROUGHPUT|INFECTION|HUMANS|SWINE INFLUENZA|HEMAGGLUTININ|TRANSMISSION|UNITED-STATES|ANTIBODY-RESPONSES|AMERICAN PIGS|GENETIC EVOLUTION Virology Links
  • Funk JA, Abley MJ, Bowman AS, Gebreyes WA, Morrow WEM, Tadesse DA. "Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Antimicrobial-Free and Conventional Antimicrobial Use Swine Production." Foodborne Pathogens and Disease. Vol. 10, no. 6. (Jun 2013): 514-519. (Published).Citation Count: 0. Funk JA, Abley MJ, Bowman AS, Gebreyes WA, Morrow WEM, Tadesse DA Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Antimicrobial-Free and Conventional Antimicrobial Use Swine Production Foodborne Pathogens and Disease Journal Article Peer-Review Acquisition of data and manuscript preparation 23614802 10.1089/fpd.2012.1354 1535-3141 Swine are the primary reservoir for foodborne illness associated with Yersinia enterocolitica. The use of antimicrobials in animal agriculture has been hypothesized as having a potential role in the increase in prevalence of zoonotic pathogens. The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of Y. enterocolitica fecal shedding in swine reared on farms with conventional antimicrobial use policies to farms that were antimicrobial free (ABF). Swine farms were selected from three regions in the United States. In each region, farms were categorized based on antimicrobial use policy. Fecal samples were collected from pigs on-farm within 48 h of harvest. The overall proportion of Y. enterocolitica and ail-harboring Y. enterocolitica-positive pigs was 10.9% and 4.0%, respectively. There were increased odds (odds ratio [OR] 6.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.46-13.28) for a pig to be Y. enterocolitica positive if it was reared on an ABF farm as compared to a conventional farm. There was no significant association between farm antimicrobial use policy and isolation of an ail-harboring Y. enterocolitica from an individual pig (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.90-3.61). The association of antimicrobial use policy with Y. enterocolitica shedding in feces should be interpreted cautiously, as antimicrobial use cannot be separated from other management factors (e.g., confinement or outdoor housing), which may be associated with risk of Y. enterocolitica in swine. SLAUGHTER|FARMS|PIGS|UNITED-STATES|FECES|VIRULENCE Food Science & Technology Links
  • Killian ML, Swenson SL, Vincent AL, Landgraf JG, Shu B, Lindstrom S, Xu X, Klimov A, Zhang Y, Bowman AS. "Simultaneous Infection of Pigs and People with Triple-Reassortant Swine Influenza Virus H1N1 at a U.S. County Fair." Zoonoses and Public Health. Vol. 60, no. 3. (May 2013): 196-201. (Published).Citation Count: 7. Killian ML, Swenson SL, Vincent AL, Landgraf JG, Shu B, Lindstrom S, Xu X, Klimov A, Zhang Y, Bowman AS Simultaneous Infection of Pigs and People with Triple-Reassortant Swine Influenza Virus H1N1 at a U.S. County Fair Zoonoses and Public Health Journal Article Peer-Review Conception of the work, acquisition of data, and manuscript preparation 22776714 10.1111/j.1863-2378.2012.01508.x 1863-1959 Influenza-like illness was noted in people and pigs in attendance at an Ohio county fair in August 2007. The morbidity rate in swine approached 100% within 12days of initial clinical signs being recognized, and approximately two dozen people developed influenza-like illness. Triple-reassortant swine H1N1 influenza viruses were identified in both pigs and people at the fair. The identified viruses (A/Sw/OH/511445/2007, A/Ohio/01/2007, and A/Ohio/02/2007) were similar to H1N1 swine influenza viruses currently found in the U.S. swine population. This case illustrates the possibility of transmission of swine influenza in settings where there is close human/swine interaction. OUTBREAK|SOFTWARE|A VIRUS|UNITED-STATES|EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS ANALYSIS|transmission|swine influenza Infectious Diseases|Veterinary Sciences Links
  • Fries AC, Nolting JM, Danner A, Webster RG, Bowman AS, Krauss S, Slemons RD. "Evidence for the circulation and inter-hemispheric movement of the H14 subtype influenza a virus." PLOS ONE. Vol. 8, no. 3. (Mar 2013): e59216. (Published).Citation Count: 4. Fries AC, Nolting JM, Danner A, Webster RG, Bowman AS, Krauss S, Slemons RD Evidence for the circulation and inter-hemispheric movement of the H14 subtype influenza a virus. PLOS ONE Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 23555632 10.1371/journal.pone.0059216 1932-6203 Three H14 influenza A virus (IAV) isolates recovered in 2010 during routine virus surveillance along the Mississippi Migratory Bird Flyway in Wisconsin, U.S.A. raised questions about the natural history of these rare viruses. These were the first H14 IAV isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and the only H14 IAV isolates recovered since the original four isolates in 1982 in Asia. Full length genomic sequencing of the 2010 H14 isolates demonstrated the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the 1982 and 2010 H14 isolates showed 89.6% nucleotide and 95.6% amino acid similarity and phylogenetic analysis of these viruses placed them with strong support within the H14 subtype lineage. The level of genomic divergence observed between the 1982 and 2010 viruses provides evidence that the H14 HA segment was circulating undetected in hosts and was not maintained in environmental stasis. Further, the evolutionary relationship observed between 1982 H14 and the closely related H4 subtype HA segments were similar to contemporary comparisons suggesting limited adaptive divergence between these sister subtypes. The nonstructural (NS) segment of one 2010 isolate was placed in a NS clade isolated infrequently over the last several decades that includes the NS segment from a previously reported 1982 H14 isolate indicating the existence of an unidentified pool of genomic diversity. An additional neuraminidase reassortment event indicated a recent inter-hemispheric gene flow from Asia into the center of North America. These results demonstrate temporal and spatial gaps in the understanding of IAV natural history. Additionally, the reassortment history of these viruses raises concern for the inter-continental spread of IAVs and the efficacy of current IAV surveillance efforts in detecting genomic diversity of viruses circulating in wild birds. WILD BIRDS|ECOLOGY|INFECTION|GENE|H5N1|MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD|HEMAGGLUTININ|DISTANCE|EVOLUTION Multidisciplinary Sciences Links
  • Bowman AS, Nelson SW, Edwards JL, Hofer CC, Nolting JM, Davis IC, Slemons RD. "Comparative effectiveness of isolation techniques for contemporary Influenza A virus strains circulating in exhibition swine." Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. Vol. 25, no. 1. (Jan 2013): 82-90. (Published).Citation Count: 3. Bowman AS, Nelson SW, Edwards JL, Hofer CC, Nolting JM, Davis IC, Slemons RD Comparative effectiveness of isolation techniques for contemporary Influenza A virus strains circulating in exhibition swine. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation 23242667 10.1177/1040638712470449 1040-6387 The current study sought to compare the effectiveness of 2 virus isolation methods for the recovery of contemporary Influenza A virus (FLUAV) strains circulating in swine at agricultural exhibitions. Following the emergence of the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus, increased surveillance of FLUAV strains among swine was recommended for early detection of emerging strains that threaten animal and human health. The increase in genetic drift and genomic reassortment among FLUAV strains infecting swine since 1998 necessitates that detection protocols be periodically validated for contemporary FLUAV strains. During 2009, nasal swabs were collected from 221 clinically healthy pigs at 12 agricultural exhibitions in Ohio. Nasal swabs were tested in parallel for the presence of FLUAV strains using 3 methodologies: 2 passages through Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells adapted to serum-free medium (SFM), 2 passages through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs), and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR). Of the 221 samples, 40 (18.1%) were positive for FLUAV recovery in MDCK cell culture and 13 (5.9%) were positive in ECEs (P = 0.015). All samples positive in ECEs were also positive in MDCK cell culture. MDCK cell culture virus isolation results were in perfect agreement with results of the real-time RT-PCR. Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase combinations of the recovered isolates were H1N2 and H3N2, which were consistent with FLUAV strains circulating in U. S. pigs. Effectiveness and cost savings justify the use of SFM-adapted MDCK cell culture over ECEs for the recovery of contemporary FLUAV strains from exhibition swine. SIALIC-ACID|EPITHELIAL-CELLS|MDCK|PIGS|ASSAY|CANINE KIDNEY-CELLS|CULTURE|UNITED-STATES|RECEPTOR SPECIFICITY|LINE VERO|surveillance|influenza A virus|pigs|Madin-Darby canine kidney cells|embryonated chicken eggs Veterinary Sciences Links
  • Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Slemons RD. "Subclinical Influenza Virus A Infections in Pigs Exhibited at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2009-2011." Emerging Infectious Diseases. Vol. 18, no. 12. (Dec 2012): 1945-1950. (Published).Citation Count: 14. Bowman AS, Nolting JM, Nelson SW, Slemons RD Subclinical Influenza Virus A Infections in Pigs Exhibited at Agricultural Fairs, Ohio, USA, 2009-2011 Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 23171654 10.3201/eid1812.121116 1080-6040 Agricultural fairs are associated with bidirectional, inter-species transmission of influenza virus A between humans and pigs. We examined pigs exhibited at agricultural fairs in Ohio during 2009-2011 for signs of influenza-like illness and collected nasal swab specimens from a representative subset of these animals. Influenza virus A was recovered from pigs at 12/53 (22.6%) fairs during the 3-year sampling period. Pigs at 10/12 (83.3%) fairs from which influenza virus A was recovered did not show signs of influenza-like illness. Hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix gene combinations of the isolates were consistent with influenza virus A concurrently circulating among swine herds in the United States. Subclinical influenza virus A infections in pigs at agricultural fairs may pose a risk to human health and create challenges for passive surveillance programs for influenza virus A in swine herds. EMERGENCE|A VIRUSES|HUMANS|DIFFERENTIATION|SWINE INFLUENZA|PCR|UNITED-STATES|NORTH-AMERICA|ANIMAL INFLUENZA|PANDEMIC H1N1 2009 Immunology|Infectious Diseases Links
  • Bowman AS, Sreevatsan S, Killian ML, Page SL, Nelson SW, Nolting JM, Cardona C, Slemons RD. "Molecular evidence for interspecies transmission of H3N2pM/H3N2v influenza A viruses at an Ohio agricultural fair, July 2012." Emerging Microbes & Infections. Vol. 1, (Oct 2012): e33. (Published).Citation Count: 7. Bowman AS, Sreevatsan S, Killian ML, Page SL, Nelson SW, Nolting JM, Cardona C, Slemons RD Molecular evidence for interspecies transmission of H3N2pM/H3N2v influenza A viruses at an Ohio agricultural fair, July 2012 Emerging Microbes & Infections Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 26038404 10.1038/emi.2012.33 2222-1751 Evidence accumulating in 2011-2012 indicates that there is significant intra-and inter-species transmission of influenza A viruses at agricultural fairs, which has renewed interest in this unique human/swine interface. Six human cases of influenza A (H3N2) variant (H3N2v) virus infections were epidemiologically linked to swine exposure at fairs in the United States in 2011. In 2012, the number of H3N2v cases in the Midwest had exceeded 300 from early July to September, 2012. Prospective influenza A virus surveillance among pigs at Ohio fairs resulted in the detection of H3N2pM (H3N2 influenza A viruses containing the matrix (M) gene from the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus). These H3N2pM viruses were temporally and spatially linked to several human H3N2v cases. Complete genomic analyses of these H3N2pM isolates demonstrated >99% nucleotide similarity to the H3N2v isolates recovered from human cases. Actions to mitigate the bidirectional inter-species transmission of influenza A virus between people and animals at agricultural fairs may be warranted. influenza|swine|FAIR|H3N2pM|human H3N2v Immunology|Microbiology Links
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus-Related Hospitalizations - Ohio, 2012." MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Vol. 61, (Sep 2012): 764-767. (Published). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Influenza A (H3N2) Variant Virus-Related Hospitalizations - Ohio, 2012. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report Journal Article Editor-Review Acquisition of data and manuscript preparation. Reported by: DiOrio M, Fowler B, Page S, Thomas R, Sohner K, Bowman A, Slemons R, Davis W, Garten R, Lindstrom S, Jhung M, Uyeki T, Quinn C. Reprinted in Journal of the American Medical Association Vol. 308, no. 22. (Dec 2012): 2331-2333. 23013722 0149-2195 Since July 2012, 305 cases of infection with influenza A (H3N2) variant (H3N2v) virus containing the influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 M gene have occurred in multiple U.S. states, primarily associated with swine exposure at agricultural fairs. In Ohio, from July 28 to September 25, 2012, a total of 106 confirmed H3N2v cases were identified through enhanced surveillance. Whereas most H3N2v patients experienced mild, self-limited influenza-like illness (ILI), 11 of the Ohio patients were hospitalized, representing 69% of all H3N2v hospitalizations in the United States. Of these hospitalized H3N2v patients, six were at increased risk for influenza complications because of age or underlying medical conditions, including the only H3N2v-associated fatality reported in the United States to date. This report summarizes the epidemiology and clinical features of the 11 hospitalized H3N2v patients in Ohio. These findings reinforce the recommendation for persons at high risk for influenza complications to avoid swine exposure at agricultural fairs this fall. In addition, persons not at high risk for influenza complications who wish to reduce their risk for infection with influenza viruses circulating among pigs also should avoid swine and swine barns at agricultural fairs this fall. PubMed.gov
  • Funk J, WittumTE, LeJeune JT, Rajala-Schultz PJ, Bowman A, Mack A. "Evaluation of stocking density and subtherapeutic chlortetracycline on Salmonella enterica subsp enterica shedding in growing swine." Veterinary Microbiology. Vol. 124, no. 3-4. (Oct 2007): 202-208. (Published).Citation Count: 8. Funk J, WittumTE, LeJeune JT, Rajala-Schultz PJ, Bowman A, Mack A Evaluation of stocking density and subtherapeutic chlortetracycline on Salmonella enterica subsp enterica shedding in growing swine Veterinary Microbiology Journal Article Peer-Review Acquisition of data and manuscript preparation. 17482387 10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.04.018 0378-1135 The objective of this research was to determine the effect of stocking density and inclusion of subtherapeutic chlortetracycline in the diet on Salmonella fecal prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in growing swine. A 2 x 2 factorial design was employed on a privately owned commercial swine farm. Four finisher rooms were included in the study. Two of the rooms received 50 g/tonnes of chlortetracycline in the ration, two rooms received no antimicrobials in the feed. In each room, alternate pens Were assigned to either high stocking density (0.60 m(2)/pig) or low stocking density (0.74 m(2)/pig). Pigs were placed in the finisher rooms at 10 weeks of age and followed for 6 weeks. Individual fecal samples were collected from the floors of each pen and cultured once weekly. Antimicrobial resistance phenotypes were determined. Data were analyzed using multilevel, multivariable logistic regression. Pigs fed chlortetracycline were at increased odds (OR 6.88, 95% CI 2.77-17.12) to shed Salmonellae. No other associations between treatments (CTC and stocking density) and Salmonella prevalence or reduced susceptibility to antimicrobials were identified. Variance in the odds of a fecal sample to be positive was distributed mostly at the lowest level, the individual fecal sample. The increased risk of shedding associated with inclusion of subtherapeutic chlortetracycline in swine diets is discordant with previous results by our group, suggesting farm or strain specific factors may impact this association. Understanding this risk may provide a potential intervention for controlling Salmonella pre-harvest. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. PREVALENCE|ANTIBIOTICS|TYPHIMURIUM|GROWTH-PERFORMANCE|ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE|GROUP-SIZE|RISK|HERDS|SLAUGHTER PIGS|SEROPREVALENCES|salmonella|antimicrobial resistance|antimicrobials|stocking density|swine|epidemiology-foodborne diseases|foodborne disease-bacterial Microbiology|Veterinary Sciences Links
  • Bowman AS, Glendening C, Wittum TE, LeJeune JT, Stich RW, Funk JA. "Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in different phases of production on swine farms." Journal of Food Protection. Vol. 70, no. 1. (Jan 2007): 11-16. (Published).Citation Count: 17. Bowman AS, Glendening C, Wittum TE, LeJeune JT, Stich RW, Funk JA Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in different phases of production on swine farms Journal of Food Protection Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation. 17265853 0362-028X Swine have been identified as the primary reservoir of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (YE), but little research has focused on the epidemiology of YE at the farm level. The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of YE in different production phases on swine farms. In this cross-sectional study, individual pigs on eight swine operations were sampled for the presence of YE. On each farm, both feces and oral-pharyngeal swabs were collected from pigs in five different production phases: gestating, farrowing, suckling, nursery, and finishing. A pig was considered positive if either sample tested positive. Samples were cultured with cold enrichment followed by isolation on selective media plates. Presumptive isolates were confirmed as YE and assayed for the presence of ail with a multiplex PCR. Of the 2,349 pigs sampled, 120 (5.1%) tested positive, and of those, 51 were ail positive (42.5% of YE isolates). On all farms, there was a trend of increasing prevalence as pigs mature. Less than 1% of suckling piglets tested positive for YE. Only 1.4% (44.4% of which were ail positive) of nursery pigs tested positive, but 10.7% (48.1% of which were ail positive) of finishing pigs harbored YE. Interestingly, gestating sows had the second highest prevalence of YE at 9.1% (26.7% of which were ail positive), yet YE was never detected from the farrowing sows. These results represent the first on-farm description of YE in U.S. herds and provide the initial step for designing future studies of YE. INFANTS|Y-ENTEROCOLITICA|INFECTIONS|FOOD|STRAINS|SAMPLES|EPIDEMIOLOGY|SALMONELLA-ENTERICA|SLAUGHTER PIGS|PCR-ASSAY Biotechnology & Applied Microbiology|Food Science & Technology Links
  • Bliss N, Stull JW, Moeller SJ, Rajala-Schultz P, Bowman AS. "Exhibition swine movement and the association of influenza A virus infections with on-farm management practices." Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. (In Press). Bliss N, Stull JW, Moeller SJ, Rajala-Schultz P, Bowman AS Exhibition swine movement and the association of influenza A virus infections with on-farm management practices Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association Journal Article Peer-Review Conception and design of the work, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, and manuscript preparation
  • Mathys DA, Mollenkopf DF, Nolting JM, Bowman AS, Daniels JB, Wittum TE. "Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in enteric flora of wild ducks." Journal of Wildlife Diseases. (In Press). Mathys DA, Mollenkopf DF, Nolting JM, Bowman AS, Daniels JB, Wittum TE Extended-Spectrum Cephalosporin-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in enteric flora of wild ducks Journal of Wildlife Diseases Journal Article Peer-Review Design of the work and manuscript preparation.